DISEASES DRIVEN BY IMMUNE RESPONSE
Inflammatory conditions such as autoimmune diseases and allergies arise when homeostatic checks and balances required for maintaining a healthy immune system become dysregulated.
In a dysregulated state, antigen presenting cells (APCs) become pathologically activated upon encountering autoantigens in an inflammatory environment (e.g. infections and tissue damage). These pathologic APCs become activated when they fail to recognize the autoantigen as self, as they would in a healthy immune system.
Pathologically activated APCs engulf the autoantigen and induce an antigen-specific immune response via antigen presentation to CD4 T cells and activating them with pro-inflammatory signals.
In turn, antigen specific CD4 T cells drive autoimmune inflammation and tissue destruction by activating cytotoxic CD8 T cells and antibody producing B cells via pro-inflammatory Th1/Th2 signaling pathways.
CNP MECHANISM OF ACTION
CNPs address dysregulated immune function underlying autoimmune diseases and allergies by inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance and returning the immune system to a balanced homeostatic state.
CNP uptake reprograms pathologically activated APCs resulting in presentation of the encapsulated antigen to pathologically activated CD4 T cells with tolerogenic signals (e.g. PD-L1, IL-10, and TGF-b) - reprogramming instructions for the autoantigen to be recognized as self and the immune response to be tolerogenic.
CNP mediated reprogramming of pathologic APCs and CD4 T cells upregulates regulatory T cell (Treg) responses resulting in downregulation, deletion, and anergy of pathologic CD8 T cells and B cells. As a result, healthy tissue is protected from autoimmune destruction.
Because CNPs target pathologic immune cells in an antigen-specific manner, tissue repair immune functions remain intact leading to improved tissue recovery